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Documents & Guides
Explore a variety of topics about marine spills, response and compensation matters in the pages below.
Each topic and area of interest provides access to more detailed documentation that is freely downloadable.
This includes our 17 Technical Information Papers which are fully illustrated with photos and diagrams and are available in several languages.
What happens to oil in the marine environment over time when spilled at sea? How do different factors such as volume and physical and chemical properties affect the fate of oil spills?
How does oil impact seabirds, plankton, sea mammals and the shoreline?
Which industries might suffer temporary economic losses and loss of market confidence?
What are the specific chemical response strategies for responding to a Hazardous and Noxious Substance spill, and what are the potential effects on human and marine life?
What information is needed for an effective oil spill contingency plan? How can aerial observation and protective strategies assist with response operations?
What techniques are available for cleaning up oil at sea and on the shoreline?
What planning and waste management systems need to be put in place to reduce the volume of oily waste for treatment or disposal?
What legal arrangements and sources of compensation are available for a spill from a ship?
Explore the resources
Admissibility of claims for compensation for environmental damage under the 1992 Civil Liability and Fund Conventions (2001)
The definition of Pollution Damage in the 1992 Civil Liability and Fund Conventions provides that "compensation for impairment of the environment other than loss of profit from such impairment shall be limited to costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement actually undertaken or to be undertaken".
The NAKHODKA and ERIKA oil spills in Japan and France, respectively, have once again focused the attention of politicians, regulators, the media and claimants on the potentially high cost of such events and the adequacy of the current international compensation arrangements.
Facilitating the speedy payment of oil spill compensation claims Under the CLC and Fund Convention (2002)
The prompt settlement of claims for compensation following oil spills from tankers is in everyone's interests, especially those who have incurred clean-up costs, had their property contaminated or suffered economic losses.
The NAKHODKA and ERIKA oil spills in Japan and France, respectively, have once again focused attention on the potentially high cost of such events and the adequacy of the current international compensation arrangements. This prompted a study by the International Group of P&I Clubs of the costs of 360 oil spills occurring outside of the USA between 1990 and 1999.
Compensation for clean up costs and damages caused by oil spills from tankers is governed in many maritime nations by two International Conventions, the Civil Liability Convention (CLC) and the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FC).
Almost one in every five incidents attended by ITOPF in the last five years has involved sunken wrecks and the removal of oil or chemicals from below the sea surface or at least consideration of the feasibility of such operations.
The grounding of the Sea Empress in February 1996 followed the wrecks of the Braer in January 1993 (84,700 tonnes of oil spilled) and the Torrey Canyon in March, 1967 (119,000 tonnes). Volume of oil lost, however, is not necessarily the most important factor in determining the seriousness of a particular incident.
72.000 tonnes of light crude oil were released from the Sea Empress at the entrance to Milford Haven, South Wales over a 7 day period in February 1996, in an area of exceptional environmental value for wildlife, tourism and natural beauty. Natural factors coupled with effective clean-up at sea and on shore, minimised environmental impact.
During a storm on 29 December 1999 the Russian tanker VOLGONEFT 248 broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, off Istanbul, Turkey and spilled 1,578 tonnes of Heavy Fuel Oil. Most of the oil was cast ashore, and was subsequently cleaned up manually, whilst the remaining oil sank in shallow water.