Case Studies

ABT SUMMER, off Angola, 1991

On 28th May 1991, ABT SUMMER, fully laden with a cargo of 260,000 tonnes of Iranian heavy crude oil, experienced an explosion and a fire about 900 miles off the coast of Angola.

Categories: Angola, Oil, Oil Tanker, Africa

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AEGEAN SEA, Spain, 1992

On 3rd December 1992 the Greek OBO carrier AEGEAN SEA, laden with 80,000 tonnes of North Sea Brent crude oil, ran aground during heavy weather while approaching the port of La Coruña on the Galician coast, North West Spain.

Categories: Spain, Oil, Bulk Carrier, Oil Tanker, Europe, Economic effects

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AGIOS DIMITRIOS 1, China, 2009

On Tuesday 15th September 2009, the containership AGIOS DIMITRIOS 1 was caught in a typhoon and ran aground off Gaolan Island, close to the city of Zhuhai in Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China. The vessel was in ballast, carrying 859 tonnes of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO).

Categories: China, Oil, Container Ship, Asia, Economic effects

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ALFA 1, Greece, 2012

On 5th March 2012, the Greek tanker ALFA I (1,648 GT; built 1972) made contact with a submerged wreck in Elefsis Bay, Greece.

Categories: Greece, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Compensation

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AMOCO CADIZ, France, 1978

The tanker AMOCO CADIZ ran aground off the coast of Brittany on 16th March 1978 following a steering gear failure. Over a period of two weeks the entire cargo of 223,000 tonnes of light Iranian and Arabian crude oil and 4,000 tonnes of bunker fuel was released into heavy seas.

Categories: France, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Environmental effects

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ARAGON, off Madeira, 1989

On the 29th December, 1989, whilst under tow following steering gear failure, the Spanish tanker ARAGON suffered heavy weather damage some 360 miles off the coast of Madeira. This resulted in the loss of about 25,000 tonnes of Mexican Maya crude from the No.1 centre tank.

Categories: Portugal, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe

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ARGO MERCHANT, United States, 1976

ARGO MERCHANT ran aground on Nantucket Shoals, off Massachusetts, USA, on 15th December 1976, and over the next month spilled her entire cargo (28,000 tonnes) of Venezuelan No 6 fuel oil and cutter stock.

Categories: United States, Oil, Oil Tanker, Americas, Environmental effects

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ATLANTIC EMPRESS, West Indies, 1979

On 19 July 1979 two fully loaded VLCCs (very large crude carriers), the ATLANTIC EMPRESS and AEGEAN CAPTAIN, were involved in a collision approximately 10 miles off Tobago during a tropical rainstorm. Both vessels began leaking oil immediately after the collision and both caught fire.

Categories: West Indies, Oil, Oil Tanker, Americas

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BALTIC CARRIER, off Denmark, 2001

On 29th March 2001, the chemical/product tanker BALTIC CARRIER collided with the bulk carrier TERN in the Baltic Sea between Germany and Denmark, 30 NM north east of Rostock. Neither vessel sank, but approximately 2,700 tonnes of heavy fuel oil was lost from BALTIC CARRIER’s cargo of some 30,000 tonnes.

Categories: Denmark, Oil, Product Tanker, Europe

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BRAER, UK, 1993

Following engine failure, BRAER ran aground in severe weather conditions on Garth's Ness, Shetland on 5th January 1993.

Categories: United Kingdom, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe

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CASTILLO DE BELLVER, South Africa, 1983

CASTILLO DE BELLVER, carrying 252,000 tonnes of light crude oil caught fire about 70 miles north west of Cape Town, South Africa on 6th August 1983.

Categories: South Africa, Oil, Oil Tanker, Africa

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ECE, off Channel Islands, UK, 2006

On 31st January 2006, the Marshall Islands-registered chemical tanker, ECE was on a laden voyage from Safi, Morocco to Ghent, Belgium with a cargo of 10,361 tonnes of Phosphoric Acid when she collided with the bulk carrier GENERAL GROT-ROWECKI off Alderney, Channel Islands, UK.

Categories: United Kingdom, France, HNS, Chemical Tanker, Europe

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ERIKA, West of France, 1999

The Maltese tanker ERIKA, carrying some 31,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil as cargo, broke in two in a severe storm in the Bay of Biscay on 11th December 1999. About 20,000 tonnes of oil were spilled.

Categories: France, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Disposal

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EXXON VALDEZ, Alaska, United States, 1989

EXXON VALDEZ grounded on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24th March 1989. About 37,000 tonnes of Alaska North Slope crude escaped into the Sound and spread widely.

Categories: United States, Oil, Oil Tanker, Americas

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FU PING YUAN, Republic of Korea, 2010

The general cargo carrier FU PING YUAN was anchored at the Pukjangjaseo anchorage off Incheon Port, Republic of Korea, when she was involved in a collision with MV CS CRANE on 15th June 2010. The collision resulted in a 3-4m tear to the side of the engine room and, due to water ingress, FU PING YUAN started to sink.

Categories: Korea, Oil, General Cargo ship, Asia

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GOLDEN TRADER, Denmark, 2011

On 10th September 2011, the bulk carrier GOLDEN TRADER collided with the fishing vessel VIDAR approximately twenty nautical miles off the western coast of mainland Denmark resulting in the spillage of approximately 205 tonnes of intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO 180).

Categories: Denmark, Oil, Bulk Carrier, Europe

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HAVEN, Italy, 1991

On 11th April 1991 the very large crude carrier HAVEN, with 144,000 tonnes of Iranian heavy crude oil onboard, suffered an explosion while anchored in Genoa Roads.

Categories: Italy, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe

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HAWAIIAN PATRIOT, off Hawaii, 1977

On 23th February 1977, HAWAIIAN PATRIOT fully loaded with 99,000 tonnes of light Indonesian crude oil reported a leak of oil, approximately 300 miles west of Hawaii.

Categories: United States, Oil, Oil Tanker, Americas

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HEBEI SPIRIT, Republic of Korea, 2007

On 7th December 2007, the VLCC HEBEI SPIRIT (146,848GT, built 1993), laden with 209,000 tonnes of four different Middle Eastern crude oils, was struck by a crane barge whilst at anchor off Taean, South Korea.

Categories: Korea, Oil, Oil Tanker, Asia, Response Techniques, Dispersants, Environmental effects, Economic effects, Disposal, Compensation

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INDEPENDENTA, Bosphorus, Turkey, 1979

On 15th November 1979, Romanian tanker INDEPENDENTA collided with the Greek cargo ship EVRIALI, off Haydarpasa at the entrance to the Bosphorus, in Turkey. A part of the cargo of 93,800 tonnes of Libyan Es Sider crude oil spilled and caught fire.

Categories: Turkey, Oil, Oil Tanker, Asia

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IRENES SERENADE, Greece, 1980

On 23rd February 1980, whilst at anchor at the bunkering location in Navarino Bay, Greece, the Greek tanker IRENES SERENADE loaded with a cargo of in 102,660 tonnes of Iraqi crude oil suffered explosions in the forecastle which set the cargo alight.

Categories: Greece, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe

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JAKOB MAERSK, Leixoes, Portugal, 1975

On 29th January 1975 the Danish tanker JAKOB MAERSK struck bottom while manoeuvring onto the berth with the aid of tugs at the port of Leixoes, northern Portugal. It was carrying ~88,000 tonnes of oil, comprising Iranian light crude oil cargo and bunker fuel oil when the incident occurred.

Categories: Portugal, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe

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KATINA P, off Mozambique, 1992

On 17th April 1992 the tanker KATINA P was disabled by a freak wave while transiting the Mozambique Channel. It was carrying 66,700 tonnes of heavy fuel oil en-route from Venezuela to the United Arab Emirates. The vessel lost hull plating amidships resulting in a release of approximately 3,000 tonnes of cargo.

Categories: Mozambique, Oil, Oil Tanker, Africa

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KHARK 5, off Morocco, 1989

On 19th December 1989, Iranian tanker KHARK 5, carrying 280,000 tonnes of Iranian heavy crude oil, was damaged in a storm, exploded and caught fire approximately 150 nautical miles off the coast of Morocco, north east of the Canary Islands.

Categories: Morocco, Oil, Oil Tanker, Africa

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METULA, Chile, 1974

METULA grounded in the eastern Strait of Magellan, Chile, on 9th August 1974. About 47,000 tonnes of light Arabian crude oil and 3,000 to 4,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil are estimated to be have been lost.

Categories: Chile, Oil, Oil Tanker, Americas, Fate of Oil Spills, Environmental effects

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NOVA, off Iran, 1985

On 6th December 1985 VLCC NOVA, carrying 188,000 tonnes of Iranian Light crude oil, collided with ULCC MAGNUM, in ballast, approximately in the Gulf of Iran. The collision damaged five cargo tanks on NOVA, resulting in a spill of approximately 70,000 tonnes.

Categories: Iran, Oil, Oil Tanker, Asia

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ODYSSEY, off Canada, 1988

On November 10th 1988, the Liberian tanker ODYSSEY, almost fully loaded with a cargo of 132,157 tonnes of North Sea Brent crude oil, broke into two and sank in heavy weather in the North Atlantic 700 miles off the coast of Nova Scotia.

Categories: Canada, Oil, Oil Tanker, Americas

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PRESTIGE, Spain/France, 2002

On 13th November 2002, the tanker PRESTIGE (81,564 DWT), carrying a cargo of 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil, suffered hull damage in heavy seas off northern Spain. She broke in two on 19 November and 63,000 tonnes of oil were estimated lost from the PRESTIGE.

Categories: France, Spain, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Economic effects

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RENA, New Zealand, 2011

On 5th October 2011, containership RENA ran aground on Astrolabe Reef, 12nm offshore from Tauranga in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. The vessel was en-route from Napier to Tauranga carrying 1,368 containers, 11 of which contained dangerous goods. The vessel had approximately 1,700 MT of IFO 380 bunker fuel and 61 MT diesel oil onboard.

Categories: New Zealand, HNS, Other, Container Ship, Oceania

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ROCKNES, Norway, 2004

On 19th January 2004, the specialised bulk carrier ROCKNES (17,765 GT; 2001 built) laden with a cargo of rock ran into difficulties near Bergen, Norway and capsized, claiming the lives of 18 crew members. The vessel had on board 466 tonnes of Intermediate Fuel Oil 380 and 78 tonnes of marine diesel as well as lubrication oils.

Categories: Norway, Oil, Bulk Carrier, Europe

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ROKIA DELMAS, France, 2006

On 24th October 2006, the RO-RO vessel ROKIA DELMAS suffered engine failure in rough weather and ran aground on the approach to La Rochelle, immediately south of île de Ré, France.

Categories: France, Oil, RORO, Europe

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SAMHO BROTHER, Taiwan, 2005

On 10th October 2005, the chemical tanker SAMHO BROTHER was involved in a collision with the container vessel TS HONGKONG, 9 nm North West of Hsinchu, Taiwan. SAMHO BROTHER was carrying a cargo of 3,136 tonnes of benzene, 65 tonnes of intermediate fuel oil and 16 tonnes of marine diesel as bunker fuel.

Categories: Taiwan, HNS, Oil, Chemical Tanker, Asia

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SEA EMPRESS, Wales, UK, 1996

The oil tanker SEA EMPRESS, carrying 130,000 tonnes of Forties Blend North Sea crude oil, ran aground in the entrance to Milford Haven, South West Wales on the evening of 15th February 1996

Categories: United Kingdom, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Dispersants

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SEA STAR, Gulf of Oman, 1972

The South Korean tanker SEA STAR collided with the Brazilian tanker HORTA BARBOSA in the Gulf of Oman, on 19th December 1972. The incident resulted in the spillage of approximately 115,000 tonnes of crude oil.

Categories: Oman, Oil, Oil Tanker, Asia

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SELENDANG AYU, United States, 2004

On 7th December 2004, the Malysian bulk carrier SELENDANG AYU suffered engine failure whilst en-route from Seattle, USA to Xiamen, the People's Republic of China, and ran aground off Skan Bay in Unalaska Island, Alaska. Shortly after the grounding, the vessel broke in two as a result of the severe weather.

Categories: United States, Oil, Bulk Carrier, Americas

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SILVER, Morocco, 2013

On 23rd December 2013, after encountering heavy weather, the chemical and product tanker SILVER grounded on a sandbank off the coast of Tan-Tan in South Morocco while entering the port of El Ouatia. The vessel was carrying 4,940 tonnes of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) 380 as cargo, 190 tonnes of HFO 380 as bunker fuel and 24 tonnes of Marine Gas Oil (MGO).

Categories: Morocco, Oil, Product Tanker, Africa

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SOLAR 1, Philippines, 2006

On 11th August 2006, the tanker SOLAR 1, carrying approximately 2,000 tonnes of intermediate fuel oil, encountered problems in rough seas and sank in the Guimaras Straits, some 10 nautical miles south of Guimaras Island, Republic of the Philippines.

Categories: Philippines, Oil, Oil Tanker, Asia, Environmental effects

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ST THOMAS DE AQUINAS, Philippines, 2013

On 16th August 2013, RORO passenger vessel ST THOMAS DE AQUINAS collided with containership SULPICIO EXPRESS 7 on approach to port in Cebu, Philippines. The STA sank within 15 minutes, settling in 40m of water. The incident resulted in the loss of over 100 lives of the 813 passengers and crew on board STA at the time.

Categories: Philippines, Oil, RORO, Asia

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STOLT VALOR, off Saudi Arabia, 2012

On 15th March 2012, STOLT VALOR carrying 13,000 tonnes of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and 1,300 tonnes of isobutylaldehyde (IBAL) as well as 430 tonnes of Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO 380) as bunkers, suffered an explosion in international waters off Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia.

Categories: Saudi Arabia, HNS, Chemical Tanker, Asia

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TANIO, France, 1980

On 7th March 1980 TANIO, carrying 26,000 tonnes of No. 6 fuel oil, broke in two during violent weather conditions off the coast of Brittany, France. As a result approximately 13,500 tonnes of cargo oil was spilled.

Categories: France, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Economic effects

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TASMAN SPIRIT, Pakistan, 2003

The Maltese tanker TASMAN SPIRIT grounded at the entrance to Karachi Port, Pakistan in the early hours on 27th July 2003. The vessel was carrying 67,800 tonnes of Iranian Light crude oil destined for the national refinery in Karachi.

Categories: Pakistan, Oil, Oil Tanker, Asia, Environmental effects

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TK BREMEN, France, 2011

On 16th December 2011, the general cargo ship TK BREMEN dragged anchor whilst in ballast under stormy conditions and sought shelter outside the port of Lorient. The vessel subsequently ran aground on the beach of Kerminihy, Erdeven, France resulting in a spillage of an estimated 70 tonnes of Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO) 180.

Categories: France, Oil, Bulk Carrier, Europe, Response Techniques

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TORREY CANYON, United Kingdom, 1967

TORREY CANYON ran aground near Lands End, Cornwall on 18th March 1967. Thousands of tonnes of oil were soon spilling from the stricken vessel's ruptured tanks and during the next 12 days the entire cargo of approximately 119,000 tonnes of Kuwait crude oil was lost.

Categories: United Kingdom, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Environmental effects

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URQUIOLA, Spain, 1976

On 12th May 1976 the tanker URQUIOLA struck bottom on entering the port of La Coruña and began leaking oil. It was estimated that 100,000 tonnes of Arabian Light crude oil was spilt during this incident.

Categories: Spain, Oil, Oil Tanker, Europe, Dispersants

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USHUAIA, Antarctic Peninsula, 2008

The ice strengthened cruise vessel, USHUAIA ran aground on 4th December 2008, while sailing through Bahia Guillermina, along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. At the time of grounding the vessel was carrying 89 passengers and 42 crew. USHUAIA was carrying a total of 440 tonnes of Marine Gas Oil at the time of the grounding.

Categories: Antarctica, Oil, Cruise Ship, Planning & operations

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